By Cedrick Ansorge
This thesis offers a research of robust stratification and turbulence cave in within the planetary boundary layer, beginning a brand new road during this box. it's the first paintings to review all regimes of stratified turbulence in a unified simulation framework with no holiday within the paradigms for illustration of turbulence.
To date, advances in our figuring out and the parameterization of turbulence within the sturdy boundary layer were hampered through problems simulating the strongly stratified regime, and the research has basically been according to box measurements. The content material awarded the following alterations that paradigm through demonstrating the power of direct numerical simulation to deal with this challenge, and via doing so as to get rid of the uncertainty of turbulence types from the research. applying a stably stratified Ekman layer as a simplified actual version of the good boundary layer, the 3 stratification regimes saw in nature— weakly, intermediately and strongly stratified—are reproduced, and the information is accordingly used to respond to key, long-standing questions.
The major a part of the ebook is geared up in 3 sections, specifically a complete advent, numerics, and physics. The thesis ends with a transparent and concise end that distills particular implications for the learn of the sturdy boundary layer. This constitution emphasizes the actual effects, yet while supplies relevance to the technical points of numerical schemes and post-processing instruments. the choice of the appropriate literature in the course of the advent, and its use alongside the paintings correctly combines literature from examine groups: fluid dynamics, and boundary-layer meteorology.
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Additional resources for Analyses of Turbulence in the Neutrally and Stably Stratified Planetary Boundary Layer
These schemes have favorable resolution properties compared to discretizations based on local stencils such as finite difference methods, also of higher order (Lele 1992). This advantage is illustrated in Fig. 1 where the modified wavenumbers of a compact and centereddifference scheme are shown. In comparison with a second-order centered-difference scheme, the compact scheme resolves variability at high wavenumbers much better. 2 Spatial Discretization 31 Fig. 1 Modified wavenumbers (left panel) and amplitude error (right panel) according to (Lele 1992).
Third-order–three-1/3-step scheme (Nikitin 2006). The reason for the drop to second-order accuracy when the time stepping is done explicitly for non-linear terms and implicitly for linear terms is that in a three-stage Runge–Kutta scheme coefficients cannot be chosen such that the error from the implicit terms cancel. One can, however, add a step which corrects for the error in the viscous terms and brings the scheme back to third-order accuracy also for the linear term. 9e) where JF is a first-order approximation to the Jacobian of the non-linear operator F.
2012). The cessation of continuous turbulence as precursor of the very stable nocturnal boundary layer. 1. van de Wiel, B. J. , Moene, A. , Jonker, H. J. , et al. (2012). The minimum wind speed for sustainable turbulence in the nocturnal boundary layer. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 69(11), 3116–3127. 1. 1 The Governing Equations The flow of a Newtonian fluid, such as gaseous air, is governed by the Navier– Stokes equations to within sufficient accuracy (Batchelor 1967). These equations are widely accepted as the appropriate vehicle to study laminar and turbulent flows.