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By Akihito Asano

''An creation to arithmetic for Economics introduces quantitative the way to scholars of economics and finance in a succinct and obtainable type. The introductory nature of this textbook ability a history in economics isn't crucial, because it goals to assist scholars delight in that studying arithmetic is suitable to their total figuring out of the topic. monetary and fiscal functions are defined in Read more...

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Question A Solve the following equation: x 2 − 2x + 1 = 0. Solution x 2 − 2x + 1 = 0 (x − 1)2 = 0 x= Either way we get x = 1. −(−2) ± √ 2± 0 . 8 Equations Question B Solve the following equation: x 2 − 2x − 6 = 0. Solution x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4 · 1 · (−6) 2 √ 4 + 24 = 2 √ 2 ± 28 = 2 √ 2±2 7 . 5 √ 7. Solving quadratic equations. But what if b2 − 4ac < 0? Then, the value inside the square root is a negative number, and we know that we cannot take the square root of a negative number unless we use complex numbers (remember that i 2 = −1).

E. q 2 + 4q = 0 to obtain the horizontal intercepts. 8 The graph of g(q) = q 2 + 4q. Now, by following the same logic as before, for the case where a < 0, we can state the following. The graph of the quadratic function f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c, if a < 0, (1) is a parabola that opens downwards; (2) is symmetric about a vertical line x = − (3) takes a maximum at the vertex, − b ; and 2a b b2 ,c − . 2a 4a 30 Basic mathematics Question Solution 1 Draw the graph of p(q) = − q 2 − 8q + 40. 2 First we complete the square: 1 p(q) = − q 2 − 8q + 40 2 1 = − q 2 + 16q + 64 + 32 + 40 2 1 = − (q + 8)2 + 72.

Sometimes we need to consider many different functions. To distinguish one function from another, we use different letters (symbols), for instance, C = g(Y ), A = φ(t), h = h(K). Note that in the last one, h is used for both the function itself and the value it takes for a given value of K. It may be confusing, but we sometimes do it to economise the use of letters and symbols. When we consider the value taken by the function, say y = f (x), when x takes a particular value a, we specify that value function takes as f (x = a), or more simply, f (a).

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