Download Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant by Frank L. Holt PDF

By Frank L. Holt

To all those that witnessed his striking conquests, from Albania to India, Alexander the good seemed invincible. How Alexander himself promoted this appearance--how he abetted the idea that he loved divine want and commanded even the forces of nature opposed to his enemies--is the topic of Frank L. Holt's soaking up booklet.

Solid proof for the ''supernaturalized'' Alexander lies in an extraordinary sequence of medallions that depict the successful younger king at conflict opposed to the elephants, archers, and chariots of Rajah Porus of India on the conflict of the Hydaspes River. Recovered from Afghanistan and Iraq in sensational and occasionally perilous situations, those historic artifacts have lengthy lively the trendy old debate approximately Alexander. Holt's e-book, the 1st dedicated to the secret of those historical medallions, takes us into the heritage in their discovery and interpretation, into the knowable evidence in their manufacture and that means, and, finally, into the king's personal psyche and his scary theology of struggle. the result's a worthwhile research of Alexander heritage and delusion, a bright account of numismatics, and a spellbinding check out the age-old mechanics of megalomania.

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Petersburg played havoc with the lives of spies and other personnel in Central Asia as nations competed for control of new imperial frontiers. Trapped in the middle were the warring tribes of Central Asia and the notorious emirs, khans, slavers, and shahs who vied for power among them. 20 He was right. In 1841, an angry mob hacked Burnes and his brother to pieces, then attacked the British garrison just outside Kabul. Of the thousands who tried to fight their way back to India through the narrow passes near Seh Baba and Jagdalak, only one Englishman—a doctor named William Brydon—survived the bloody retreat.

15 In 1877, a roiling surge near an ancient Greek settlement unearthed a vast hidden treasure of silver and gold from the banks of the Oxus. Over a period of four years, as the water did its work, local villagers gathered up thousands of coins, cups, rings, bracelets, bowls, plaques, and figurines. 16 As those valuables trickled into the eager hands of European collectors by way of Peshawar and Rawalpindi, the old tales of the so-called Oxus Treasure quickly became the stuff of legend. In 1880, three Muslim merchants from Bukhara bought a huge share of the hoard from the villagers and hurried to Peshawar to reap their rewards.

6. 14 / Man of Mystery Macedonian military settlements that threatened the traditional politics, economy, and culture of Bactria and its environs, fresh resistance stirred under the able leadership of a native named Spitamenes. The situation turned catastrophic. Alexander’s troops began to tire, and the complaints of some of his closest companions created new tensions that sometimes led to executions. Alexander pressed on through three hard years of guerrilla fighting. Sandstorms and searing heat claimed the lives of thousands; in winter, blizzards literally froze the Macedonians in their tracks.

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