By A. B. Bosworth
During this examine, Bosworth seems to be at Alexander the Great's actions in principal Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photo of bloodbath and repression corresponding to the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and inspiration of common monarch, and records the illustration of Alexander by means of historians of antiquity. The e-book is directed to experts and normal readers alike.
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Extra info for Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph
The search for a criterion of truth is delusive. All sources are to some degree unreliable, including, particularly including, those of an 'official' nature. One can therefore operate only by cross-comparison, painstakingly isolating common material, identifying and explaining variants, and arguing from general probability, that is, the appropriateness of the recorded details to the overall historical context. I can best illustrate this by an example from a very different period which provides more sources but a simpler tradition and which allows more precise explanation of context and method than is possible with the historians of Alexander.
The Indian losses at the Hydaspes were comparable. 53 It was a total, crushing victory. What can we say of Porus' policy and achievement? Heroic it might have been, but it was catastrophic and foreseeably so. Everything depended on his being able to hold the river against a crossing, and he patently did not have the resources to do so. In any case it was a gamble that Alexander would move on rather than attempt the river in its summer spate. If autumn had come and the Hydaspes had sunk to low water, then Porus would have been overwhelmed by Alexander's vastly superior numbers, with the king in embittered mood because of the delay.
It looks as though Apollodorus had been summoned to court at the same time as the Median generals. Although he was not convicted of any crime, he 24 The Shield of Achilles governors, including at least three of the military commanders in Media, and in understandable insecurity he wrote to his brother, the seer, who was still at Babylon, and asked him to read the entrails on the subject of his own welfare, and the people he most feared, namely the king and his favourite, Hephaestion. The first inspection produced an omen unfavourable to Hephaestion, and Apollodorus received the news the day before Hephaestion died (around October 324).