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By Benedict de Spinoza, R. H. M. Elwes

Written by means of the Dutch thinker Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus or Theologico-Political Treatise was once probably the most arguable texts of the early glossy interval. It used to be a preemptive safeguard of Spinoza's later paintings, Ethics, released posthumously in 1677, for which he expected harsh feedback. The treatise was once released anonymously in 1670 via Jan Rieuwertsz in Amsterdam. on the way to safeguard the writer and writer from political retribution, the name web page pointed out town of booklet as Hamburg and the writer as Henricus Kunraht. It used to be written in New Latin instead of the vernacular Dutch in an try and stay away from censorship by means of the secular Dutch experts.

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54) As it is a fact that God is equally gracious, merciful, and the rest, to all men; and as the function of the prophet was to teach men not so much the laws of their country, as true virtue, and to exhort them thereto, it is not to be doubted that all nations possessed prophets, and that the prophetic gift was not peculiar to the Jews. (55) Indeed, history, both profane and sacred, bears witness to the fact. (56) Although, from the sacred histories of the Old Testament, it is not evident that the other nations had as many prophets as the Hebrews, or that any Gentile prophet was expressly sent by God to the nations, this does not affect the question, for the Hebrews were careful to record their own affairs, not those of other nations.

63) Although Scripture only, makes mention of one man, Balaam, to whom the future of the Jews and the other nations was revealed, we must not suppose that Balaam prophesied only once, for from the narrative itself it is abundantly clear that he had long previously been famous for prophesy and other Divine gifts. (64) For when Balak bade him to come to him, he said (Num. " (65) Thus we see that he possessed the gift which God had bestowed on Abraham. Further, as accustomed to prophesy, Balaam bade the messengers wait for him till the will of the Lord was revealed to him.

47) There is no need for me to go into this now in more detail. (48) IV. Lastly, we see that the highest reward of the Divine law is the law itself, namely, to know God and to love Him of our free choice, and with an undivided and fruitful spirit; while its penalty is the absence of these things, and being in bondage to the flesh that is, having an inconstant and wavering spirit. (49) These points being noted, I must now inquire: (50) I. Whether by the natural light of reason we can conceive of God as a law-giver or potentate ordaining laws for men?

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