Download A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of by Fred Hoyle (auth.), Dr. B. G. Sidharth (eds.) PDF

By Fred Hoyle (auth.), Dr. B. G. Sidharth (eds.)

Shortly after its inauguration in 1985 the Birla technological know-how Centre, Hyderabad, India, began a sequence of lectures through Nobel Laureates and different scientists of overseas renown, often in Physics and Astronomy, occasionally in existence Sciences and Chemistry.

The current assortment typically comprises lectures on frontier themes. The transcript of every lecture is preceded via a quick biography of the Nobel Laureate/Scientist in question.

The lectures are geared toward, and obtainable to a large non-specialist yet larger proficient audience.

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In 1967 Wagoner, Fowler, and Hoyle calculated the abundances of hydrogen, helium, and lithium produced in the first thousand seconds or so at high density and high temperature. We, and later others, found agreement with observations on the abundances of hydrogen, helium, and lithium for the present mean density of ordinary matter like you and me in the universe equal to about 10% of the so-called critical density. The critical density can be calculated from Hubble’s measurements. The Early Universe 23 It can be understood as follows.

The process which occurs today which is responsible for all our energy, all our food, all our gas, coal, oil, wood, Energy and Evolution 47 all our fuels is this wonderful process of photosynthesis, a process whereby the energy of the sun is absorbed by the green leaf and that solar energy is used to combine carbon dioxide and water from the atmosphere to make oxygen and food. The food would be the carbohydrates and sugar, starch and so forth and then the cycle is completed. We can wait, we can keep our food for a long time especially if it is a fuel because it could be fuel like oil or coal and then we can combine it again with the oxygen of the atmosphere and get the chemical energy out of the sun’s energy.

The number of bunches colliding per second cannot be too high because the power in each beam would become excessive. Typical bunch repetition frequencies would be somewhere between 50 per second (50 Hz) and a few KHz. The luminosity L is given by L= N 2f 4πσ 2 where N is the number of particles per bunch, f the bunch repetition frequency and σ the transverse size of the beams in the interaction point. Increasing either N or f would increase the beam power, which tends to be a limiting factor in these machines.

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